Bibliography/References

Nongynecological Cytology Practice Guidlines

prepared by the American Society of Cytopathology, Cytopathology Practice Committee.

Adopted by the ASC Executive Board, March 2, 2004

XII Bibliography/References

  1. Institute of Medicine (IOM), Committee on Clinical Practice Guideline. Guideline for Clinical Practice – From Development to Use. Field MJ, Lohr KN, (eds.). Washington, D.C: National Academy Press; 1992, p 8.
  2. Institute of Medicine. Clinical Practice Guideline: Directions for a New Program. Field MJ, Lohr KN, (eds.) Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1990, p 39.
  3. American Medical Association, Directory of Clinical Practice Guideline; Titles, Sources, and Updates. Chicago, Ill, 1997.
  4. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Care Financing Administration, Public  Health Service, 42 CFR 405 et seq, 57 FR 7002-7186, February 28, 1992 [revising  regulations applicable to laboratories and implementing provisions of the Clinical  Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, P.L. 100-578]
  5. College of American Pathologists. Commission on Laboratory Accreditation, www.cap.org.
  6. College of American Pathologists. Commission on Laboratory Accreditation Inspection Checklist 2002 edition, Northfield, Illinois.
  7. Naylor B.  Pleural, Peritoneal, and Pericardial Fluids. In Bibbo M(ed).  Comprehensive Cytopathology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1997.
  8. NCCLS.  Nongynecologic Cytologic Specimens:  Collection and Cytopreparatory Techniques; Approved Guideline. NCCLS document GP 23-A[ISBN 1-56238-380-9]. NCCLS, West Valley Road, Suite 14000, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 1999. 
  9. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.  Bloodborne pathogens.  Standard 1910.1030.
  10. Venrick MG, Sidawy MK.  Cytologic evaluation of serous effusions: Processing techniques and optimal number of smears for routine preparation.  Am J Clin Pathol 1993; 99: 182-86.
  11. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; 68: 493.1242(a).
  12. Keebler CM.  “Cytopreparatory Techniques.”  In:  Bibbo, Comprehensive Cytopathology, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1991.
  13. Somrak TM, Sorensen K, Abdul-Karim F.  Pap smear: Collection, handling and quality assurance.   Chicago: ASCP Press; 1990
  14. DeMay RM,. “Stains.”  The Art and Science of Cytopathology.  Chicago:  ASCP Press, 1996
  15. Yang GC, Alvarez II: Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain: An Alternative Preparation for Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Acta Cytol 1995; 39: 55-60.
  16. Yang GC: Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain Is Not Limited to Rapid Assessment: Application   to Permanent Fine-Needle Aspiration Smears. Diagn Cytopathol 1995; 13: 160-162.
  17. NCCLS.  Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) Techniques; Approved Guideline—Second Edition. NCCLS document GP20-A2 [ISBN 1-56238-000-0].  NCCLS, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2002.
  18. Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. CDC. 1996;Vol 17;1:53-80)
  19. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68:  493.1241(c)(1).
  20. NCCLS.  Procedures for the handling and transport of Diagnostic Specimens and Etiologic Agents-Third Edition: Approved standard (1994). NCCLS document H5-A3   NCCLS, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 1994.
  21. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1241(a).
  22. Triol JH (ed.), ASCT Cytopathology Quality Assurance Guide, Vols. I and II.  Raleigh, NC: American Society for Cytotechnology; 1992.
  23. Bales CE, Durfee GR.  “Cytologic Techniques.”  In:  Koss LG (Ed), Diagnostic Cytology and its Histologic Basis (4th ed).  Philadelphia:  JB Lippincott Co.; 1992.
  24. Boon ME. Routine cytologic staining procedures. In: Weid GL, Keebler CM, Koss LG, Reagan JW (eds.), Compendium on Diagnostic Cytology (6th ed).  Chicago:  Tutorials of Cytology; 1992.
  25. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1232.
  26. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1241(b).
  27. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1283(a).
  28. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1251(b)(1).
  29. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Task Force on Standards of Practice: Guidelines of the papanicolaou society of cytopathology for fine-needle aspiration procedure and reporting.  Diagnostic Cytopatholy 1997 Oct; 17(4):239-247.
  30. ThinPrep® 2000 System Operator’s Manual, Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA, 1995.
  31. PrepStainTM System Operator’s Manual, TriPath ImagingTM, Inc, Burlington, NC
  32. Diaz-Rosario LA, & Kabawat SE, Cellblock preparation by inverted filter sedimentation is useful in the differential diagnosis of AGUS in ThinPrep specimens. Cancer Cytopathology, 2000;90:265-72
  33. Richard K, Dziura B, Hornish A:  Cell block preparation as a diagnostic technique complementary to fluid-based monolayer cervicovaginal specimens. Acta Cytologica 1999 Jan-Feb;43(1):69-73
  34. Rowe LR, Marshall CJ, Bentz JS: Cell block preparation as an adjunctive diagnostic technique in ThinPrep monolayer preparations: A case report. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2001 Feb;24(2):142-4.
  35. Yeoh GP, Chan KW: Cell block preparation on residual ThinPrep sample. Diagnostic Cytopathology 1999 Dec;21(6):427-31.
  36. Homquist MD, Keebler CM.  “Cytopreparatory Techniques.”  In: Keebler CM, Somrak TM (eds.) The Manual of Cytotechnology (7th ed.). Chicago:  ASCP Press; 1993.
  37. NCCLS.  Papanicolaou Technique; Approved Guideline.  NCCLS Document 15-A (ISBN 1-56238-238-1) Villanova, Pennsylvania:  NCCLS; 1994; 14:  no. 8.
  38. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1251(b)(4).
  39. Morris MW, Davey FR.  Basic examination of Blood. In Henry JB (ed) Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods (20th ed) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders 2000.
  40. Whatman, laboratory filtration, qualitative filter papers, standard grades,  www.whatman.com.
  41. Gill GW.  A cross-contamination control and stain storage system.  Cytotechnology Bulletin.  1975; 12:12-3.
  42. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(b)(2)(3).
  43. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.  Occupational Exposures to Chemicals in Laboratories.  Laboratory Standard; Federal Register Final Rules-Title 29.1910.1450.  1990.
  44. American Society Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959. Website: http://www.astm.org
  45. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1100(a)(b)(d).
  46. Carriere C. “The cytotechnologist and the workplace.” In Keebler CM, Somrak TM (Eds.) The Manual of Cytotechnology (7th ed.). Chicago:  ASCP Press; 1993.
  47. Patten FW. “Organization of the Laboratory.” In: Wied GL, Keebler CM, Koss LG, Reagan JW (Eds.) Compendium on Diagnostic Cytology (6th ed.). Chicago:  Tutorials of Cytology; 1990.
  48. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(e)(3).
  49. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register. Feb. 28, 1992; 57; 493.1449.
  50. Cervical Cytology Practice Guidelines: American Society of Cytopathology. Acta Cytologica 2001; 45:201-226.
  51. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.  Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens.  Federal Register Final Rules-Title 29. 1991; 56(235), amended 1996; 60 (30).
  52. Patten FW.  “Organization of the Laboratory”  In:  Weid GL, Keebler CM, Koss LG, Reagan JW (Eds.)  Compendium on Diagnostic Cytology (6th ed.)  Chicago:  Tutorials of Cytology; 1990.
  53. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(d).
  54. Cervical Cytology Practice Guidelines: American Society of Cytopathology. Acta Cytologica 2001; 45:201-226.
  55. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(d)(2)(iii).
  56. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1291(c).
  57. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1291(f).
  58. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1283(a)(3).
  59. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule.  Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1291(g).
  60. DeMay RM: The Art & Science of Cytopathology. Volume 2, Aspiration Cytology.  Chapter 21: Lung.  ASCP Press, Chicago, 1996.
  61. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register.  Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1291(i)(1)(2)(3).
  62. NCCLS.  A Quality System Model for Respiratory Services; Proposed Guideline.  NCCLS Document HS4-P (ISBN 1-56238-404-X). Wayne, Pennsylvania:  NCCLS; 2000; 20:  no. 11.
  63. Quality Improvement Manual in Anatomic Pathology. Chicago: College of American Pathologists; 1993.
  64. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274.
  65. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Feb. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1255.
  66. Zarbo RJ.  Monitoring anatomic pathology practice through quality assurance measures.  Clin in Lab Med 1999;19:713-742.
  67. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Feb. 28, 1992; 57: 493.1449 and 1483.
  68. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274 (d)(2)(iv).
  69. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(d)(1).
  70. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(e)(5).
  71. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(e)(3).
  72. Nagy GK. False negative rate – a misnomer, misunderstood and misused. Acta Cytol 1997; 41:778-780.
  73. Krieger PA, Naryshkin S. Random rescreening of cytologic smears: A practical and effective component of quality assurance programs in both large and small cytology laboratories. Acta Cytol 1994; 38:291-8.
  74. Krieger PA, Cohen T, Naryshkin S.  A practical guide to Papanicolaou smear rescreens. Cancer Cytopathol 1998; 84:130-137.
  75. Rickert RR. Quality assurance in anatomic pathology.  Clin in Lab Med 1986; 6:697-706.
  76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, HIPAA Privacy Rule and Public Health, Vol. 52, May 2, 2003.
  77. Buffone GJ, Moreau D, Beck JR. Workflow computing.  Improving management and efficiency of pathology diagnostic services. Am J Clin Pathol 1996; 105:S17-24.
  78. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(f).
  79. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1291(a).
  80. Aller R.  The laboratory information system a medical device: inspection and accreditation issues.  Clinical Laboratory Management Review 1992; 6:58-64.
  81. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1253.
  82. Color Atlas of Differential Diagnosis in Exfoliative and Aspiration Cytology, Sudha R. Kini, Williams and Wilkins, 1999, Chapter 1.
  83. Frisman D, ImmunoQuery website, www.ipox.org
  84. Dabbs DJ, Diagnostic Immunochemistry, Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2002.
  85. Comprehensive Cytopathology, 2nd edition, Marluce Bibbo, W.B. Saunders Company, 1997, Chapter 36. 
  86. Advanced Diagnostic Methods in Pathology, TJ O’Leary, Saunders, 2003, Chapter 5.
  87. Waters, JJ et al. Demystified…FISH. J Clin Pathol:Mol Pathol 1998;51:62
  88. Bergeron C, Ferenzcy A. In situ hybridization. Bibbo, M. Comprehensive Cytopathology, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1995;1053-1060.
  89. DeMay, R.M. The Art & Science of Cytopathology, Chicago:ASCP Press, 86-87
  90. Abati A et al, Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): A user’s guide to optimal preparation of cytologic specimens. Diagnostic Cytopathology 1995;13:486-492
  91. Wolman SR et al, Genetic probes in cytology: principals and applications. Diagnostic Cytopathology 1995;13:429-435
  92. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry, Dabbs, Churchill Livingstone, 2002, Chapter 19
  93. Ross, JS. Ancillary Techniques in Diagnostic Cytopathology: Uses and Limitations.  Short course #60, 2001: United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, 1-65
  94. Appendix C-Survey Procedures and Interpretive Guideline for Laboratories and Laboratory Services.  Washington, D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services. Health Care Financing Administration; 1993; 1-296.
  95. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1105(a)(7).
  96. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; Final Rule. Federal Register. Jan. 24, 2003; Vol. 68: 493.1274(f).
  97. NCCLS, Basic Cost Accounting for Clinical Services; Approved Guidelines, NCCLS document GP11-A, (ISBN  1-56238-356-6) Wayne, PA.: NCCLS; 1998; vol:18  no. 14  
  98. Coiles R.  Market Outlook Seven Strategies for Tomorrow’s Clinical Laboratories.  Health Trends. 2001; 13(5):9-12.
  99. Auxter S. The Rebirth of America’s Clinical Laboratory Industry? Clinical  Laboratory News, American Association of Clinical Chemistry, January 2001.
  100. Paxton A. Bean Counting Basics for Laboratories. CAP Today, 2001; 15(6): 22.
  101. Template Topics: Calculating Costs. Clinical Leadership and Management Review, March/April 2001; p. 124-127.
  102. “A Systematic Approach to Direct Cost Analysis: The Experience of One Lab with Labor and Supply Cost Allocations”, CLMR Article, ARUP Lab.
  103. Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, et al: Cancer Statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin 51: 15-36, 2001.
  104. DeMay RM: The Art & Science of Cytopathology. Vol 2, Aspiration Cytology. Chapter 21: Lung. ASCP Press, Chicago, 1996.
  105. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Assessment of Lung Cancer in Adults and Respiratory Disorder in Children. Report 6000690006A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1990a.
  106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Guide to Workplace Policies. Report 400/6-90/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1990b.
  107. Alberg AJ, Samet JM.  Epidemiology of lung cancer. Chest. 2003;123(1 Suppl):21S-49S.
  108. Brownson RC, Figgs LW, Caisley LE.  Epidemiology of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Oncogene.  2002;21(48):7341-8.
  109. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Smoking and Health: Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Publication CDC90-8416. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.
  110. Auerbach O, Garfinkel L: The Changing Pattern of Lung Carcinoma. Cancer 68: 1973-1977, 1991.
  111. Chyou P-H, Nomura AMY, Stemmermann GN: A Prospective Study of the Attributable Risk of Cancer Due to Cigarette Smoking. Am J Public Health 82: 37-40, 1992.
  112. Greenberg SD, Fraire AE, Kinner BM, et al: Tumor Cell Type Versus Staging in the Prognosis of Carcinoma of the Lung. Pathol Annul 22(2): 387-405, 1987.
  113. Jett JR, Cortese DA, Fontana RS: Lung Cancer: Current Concepts and Prospects. CA Cancer J Clin 33: 74-86, 1983.
  114. Morton WE, Treyve EL: Histologic Differences in Occupational Risks of Lung Cancer Incidence. Am J Indust Med 3: 441-457, 1982.
  115. Fielding JE: Smoking: Health Effects and Control. N Engl J Med 313: 491-561, 1985.
  116. Garfinkel L, Silverberg E: Lung Cancer and Smoking Trends in the United States Over the Past 25 Years. CA Cancer J Clin 41: 137-145, 1991.
  117. Hammond EC: Smoking in Relation to the Death Rates of One Million Men and Women. NCI Monogr 19: 127-204, 1966.
  118. Linnoila I: Pathology of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: New Diagnostic Approaches. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 4: 1027-1051, 1990.
  119. Carney DN: Biology of Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Lancet 339: 843-846, 1992.
  120. Whitesell PL, Drage CW: Occupational Lung Cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 68: 183-188, 1993.
  121. Fontham ETH: Protective Dietary Factors and Lung Cancer. Int J Epidemiol, suppl 1: 19: S32-42, 1990.
  122. Pershagen G, et al: Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer in Sweden. N Engl J Med 330: 159-164, 1994.
  123. Samet JM: Indoor Radon and Lung Cancer: Estimating the Risks. N Engl J Med 156: 25-29, 1992.
  124. Amos CI, Caporaso NE, Weston A: Host Factors in Lung Cancer: A Review of Interdisciplinary Studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1: 505-513, 1992.
  125. Ives JC, Buffler PA, Greenberg SD: Environmental Associations and Histopathologic Patterns of Carcinoma of the Lung: The Challenge and Dilemma in Epidemiologic Studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: 195-209, 1983.
  126. Law MR: Genetic Predisposition to Lung Cancer. Br J Cancer 61; 195-206, 1990.
  127. Saccomanno G, Huth GC, Auerbach O, et al: Relationship of Radioactive Radon Daughters and Cigarette Smoking in the Genesis of Lung Cancer in Uranium Miners. Cancer 62: 1402-1408, 1988.
  128. Berry G, Newhouse ML, Turok M: Combined Effect of Asbestos Exposure and Smoking on Mortality From Lung Cancer in Factory Workers. Lancet (ii): 476-479, 1972.
  129. Churg A: Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Lung Cancer. Mod Pathol 6: 509-511, 1993.
  130. Hammond E, et al: Asbestos Exposure, Cigarette Smoking, and Death Rates. Ann N Y Acad Sci 330: 473-490, 1979.
  131. Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC, Churg J: Asbestos Exposure, Smoking, and Neoplasia. JAMA 204: 104-112, 1968.
  132. Skillrud DM, Offord KP, Miller RD: Higher Risk of Lung Cancer in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective, Matched, Controlled Study. Ann Intern Med 105: 503-507, 1986.
  133. Turner-Warwick M, Lebowitz M, Burrows B, et al: Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis and Lung Cancer. Thorax 35: 496-499, 1980.
  134. Yousem SA, Ohori NP, Sonmez-Alpan E: Occurrence of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Primary Lung Neoplasms. Cancer 69: 693-697, 1992.
  135. Cho JY, et al: Correlation between K-ras Gene Mutation and Prognosis of Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Carcinoma. Cancer 79: 462-467, 1997.
  136. Gazdar A: The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Human Lung Cancer. Anticancer Res 13: 261-267, 1994.
  137. Salgia R, Skarin AT: Molecular Abnormalities in Lung Cancer. J Clin Oncol 16: 1207-1217, 1998.
  138. Marcus P, Fagerstrom RM, Prorok PC et al: Lung Cancer Mortality in the Mayo Lung Project: Impact of Extended Follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst  92: 1308-1316, 2000.
  139. Thun MJ, Lally CA, Flannery JT, et al.: Cigarette smoking and changes in the histopathology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 89(21): 1580-1586, 1997.
  140. Gazdar AF, Minna JD: Cigarettes, sex, and lung adenocarcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 89(21): 1563-1565, 1997.
  141. Petty TL: The Early Identification of Lung Cancer by Sputum Cytology. Cancer 89 (suppl): 2461-2464, 2000
  142. American Cancer Society: Guidelines for the Cancer-Related Checkup: An Update. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 1993.
  143. American Academy of Family Physicians: Age charts for periodic health examination. Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Family Physicians, 1994.(Reprint no. 510.)
  144. American College of Radiology: ACR Standard for Adult Chest Radiography, 2d ed. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology, 1993.
  145. Tockman MS, Becklake MR, Clausen JL, et al: American Thoracic Society. Screening for Adult Respiratory Disease. Am Rev Resp Dis 128: 768-774, 1983.
  146. Eddy DM: Screening for lung cancer. In: Common Screening Tests. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians: 312-325, 1991.
  147. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination: Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care. Ottawa: Canada Communication Group, pp 780-787, 1994.
  148. Ahrendt SA, Chow JT, Xu LH, et al.: Molecular detection of tumor cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with early stage lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91(4): 332-339, 1999.
  149. Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF, et al.: Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet 354(9173): 99-105, 1999.
  150. DeMay RM,. “Respiratory Cytology.”  The Art and Science of Cytopathology.  Chicago:  ASCP Press, 1996
  151. Papanicolaou GN. Atlas of Exfoliative Cytology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1954
  152. Johnston WW, Bossen EH: Ten Years of Respiratory Cytopathology at Duke University Medical Center. I. The Cytopathologic Diagnosis of Lung Cancer During the Years 1970 to 1974, Noting the Significance of Specimen Number and Type. Acta Cytol 1981; 25: 103-107.
  153. Popov TA, Pizzichini MM, Pizzichini E, Kolendowicz R, Punthakee Z, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE . Some technical factors influencing the induction of sputum for cell analysis. Eur Respir J 1995; 8:559-65
  154. Fahy JV, Boushey HA, Lazarus SC, Mauger EA, Cherniack RM, Chinchilli VM, Craig TJ, Drazen JM, Ford JG, Fish JE, Israel E, Kraft M, Lemanske RF, Martin RJ, McLean D, Peters SP, Sorkness C, Szefler SJ; NHLBI Asthma Clinical Research Network. Safety and reproducibility of sputum induction in asthmatic subjects in a multicenter study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001 May;163(6):1470-5
  155. Fireman E. Induced sputum: opening a new window to the lung. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2001 Oct;18(3):263-71
  156. Leigh TR, Parsons P, Hume C, Husain OA, Gazzard B, Collins JV. Sputum induction for diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Lancet 1989 Jul 22;2(8656):205-6
  157. Jay SJ, Wehr K, Nicholson DP et al. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary cytology: Comparison of techniques used in conjunction with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Acta Cytol 1980; 24: 304-312.
  158. Bender BL, Cherock M, Sotos SN.  Effective use of bronchoscopy and sputa in the  diagnosis of lung cancer.  Diagn Cytopathol. 1985;1(3):183-7.
  159. Tang CS, Tang CM, Lau YY, Kung IT.  Sensitivity of sputum cytology after homogenization with dithiothreitol in lung cancer detection. Two years of experience. Acta Cytol. 1995;39:1137-40. 
  160. Tang CS, Tang CM, Kung IT.  Dithiothreitol homogenization of prefixed sputum for lung cancer detection. Diagn Cytopathol. 1994;10(1):76-81.
  161. Tang CS, Kung IT.  Homogenization of sputum with dithiothreitol for early diagnosis of pulmonary malignancies. Acta Cytol. 1993;37(5):689-93.
  162. Tockman MS, Qiao Y, Li L, Zhao GZ, Sharma R, Cavenaugh LL, Erozan YS.  Safe separation of sputum cells from mucoid glycoprotein. Acta Cytol. 1995;39(6):1128-36.
  163. Lindner J, Rennard S.  Bronchoalveolar Lavage. Chicago: ASCP Press 1988.
  164. Abati A, Landucci D, Danner RL et al. Diagnosis of microvascular metastases by cytologic evaluation of pulmonary artery catheter-derived blood specimens.  Hum Pathol 1994; 25: 257-62.
  165. Masson RG, Krikorian J, Lukl P et al.  Pulmonary microvascular cytology in the diagnosis of lymphangitic carcinomatosis.  NEJM 1989; 321: 71-76.
  166. DeMay RM,. “Lung.”  The Art and Science of Cytopathology.  Chicago:  ASCP Press, 1996.
  167. Kobzik L.  The Lung. In Cotran R, Kumar V, Collins T.(eds)  Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (6th ed) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1999.
  168. DeMay RM,. “Fluids.”  The Art and Science of Cytopathology.  Chicago:  ASCP Press, 1996.
  169. Naylor B. Pleural, Peritoneal and Pericardial Fluids.  In Bibbo, Comprehensive Cytopathology, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 1991.
  170. NCCLS.  Nongynecologic Cytologic Specimens:  Collection and Cytopreparatory Techniques; Approved Guideline. NCCLS document GP 23-A[ISBN 1-56238-380-9]. NCCLS, West Valley Road, Suite 14000, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 1999. 
  171. DeMay RM. “ Respiratory Cytology.”  The Art and Science of Cytopathology.  Chicago:  ASCP Press, 1996.
  172. Saccamanno G, Saundwers RP, Ellis H et al.  Concentration of carcinoma or atypical cells in sputum. Acta Cytol 1963; 7:305-310.
  173. Advanced Diagnostic Methods in Pathology, TJ O’Leary, Saunders, 2003, Chapter 8